REPUBLIC OF CHAD

Country Profile (2000)

(Prepared by Felix Mbatalbaye, Cultural Affairs Specialist/Educational Adviser)


Chad’s education system follows the French model. A Chadian’s typical formal education begins at kindergarten, followed by 6 years of primary (elementary) education, 7 years of secondary education, and 7 years of higher education. Although Chad is a bilingual country (French and Arabic), French is the language of instruction in the majority of education institutions.

Nursery Schools: There are almost no nursery schools in Chad.

Kindergartens. Young Chadians enter kindergarten at age 3 (petite section) or 4 (grande section). Kindergarten attendance is not compulsory, and kindergartens exist only in major cities.

Primary (or Elementary) Education: Primary education begins at age 5 or 6 and has six levels:

1st level: cours préparatoire 1 (CP1

2nd level: cours préparatoire 2 (CP2)

3rd level: cours élémentaire 1 (CE1)

4th level: cours élémentaire 2 (CE2)

5th level: cours moyen 1(CM1)

6th level: cours moyen 2 (CM2)

There are public as well as private primary schools. Courses taught in primary school include: speaking, writing, reading, arithmetic. Courses such as history, geography, natural sciences, geometry, animal husbandry, civics, etc. begin at the third level (CE1). There are a few schools where Arabic is the language of instruction. A limited number of private primary schools offer one to two hours of English language courses per week. Requirements for completion of primary education include passing the secondary school entrance examination (Concours d’Entrée en 6ème) and obtaining the primary education completion certificate (Certificat d’Etudes Elémentaire et Primaire Tchadien (C.E.P.E.)

Secondary Education: Secondary education in Chad is provided by public and private high schools known as lycées and collèges d’Enseignement Généraux (C.E.G.). Lycées include a lower division (premier cycle) with 4 levels and a higher division (second cycle) with 3 levels. CEG’s only have four levels. In addition to these traditional high school institutions, there are high school institutions specializing in business (lycée technique commercial) or technology (lycée technique industriel). These institutions only have a higher division (seconde to terminale). They receive students coming from the lower level of lycées and collèges who wish to specialize in business or industry studies.

Courses taught at secondary school include French, mathematics, history, geography, biology, geology, English, (or Arabic), drawing, civic education, physical training, drawing, physics, chemistry, and philosophy (in terminale). In lycée technique commerciale and lycée technique commerciale, accountancy, management, typing, and marketing courses are taught in addition to the standard courses in traditional high schools. At the completion of the 4th level of the lower division (3ème), students who successfully take the Brevet d’Etudes du Premier Cycle Tchadien (BEPC/T) go to the first level of the higher division (seconde U).

At the second level of the higher division (première), students begin to choose their majors. Students who do well in scientific subjects (mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry, geology, etc) are oriented into Première S, whereas those who are strong in literary subjects (French, English, literature, history, geography, etc) enter Première L. There are different types of Terminales:

Terminale A4 (for literary subjects)

Terminale D (biology and related subjects)

Terminale C (for mathematics and related subjects)

Terminale G with sub-divisions, (for business and related subjects)

Terminale E (for industry and related subjects)

Completion of secondary education requires passing the Baccalaureat de l’Enseignement Supérieur (high school diploma), an examination devised and organized by the University of N’Djamena. Passing the Baccalaureat exam and obtaining an average grade of at least 10 over 20 in Terminale are the main requirements for admission to higher education institutions.

Grading System: The grading system used in Chadian schools is the “x over 20” system, with 20 the higher grade and zero the lowest. The average passing grade is 10over 20. However, except for pure science subjects such as mathemtics, physics, chemistry, students may not have a 20/20 grade in any other subjects. The highest marks a student may obtain in other subjects ranges from 13 to 16. The numeric grades can be coupled with comments such as passable (acceptable), assez-bien (not bad), bien (good), très bien (very good), excellent (excellent).

Higher Education: Higher education in Chad is provided by public and private institutions. Public institutions include: the University of Ndjamena, the Institut Universitaire des Sciences et Techniques in Abeche and the Institut Universitaire des Techniques Agricoles in Sarh. Private higher education institutions are: King Faisal University and the Institut Supérieur de Gestion.

The University of N’Djamena, the main higher education institution in the country, include:

Department

Degrees: Degrees offered by the the University of Ndjamena include:

Both Institut universitaire’s in Sarh and Abeche have been recently opened and offer a two-year training program leading to associate degrees known as Brevet de Technicien Supérieur (BTS).

Private Higher Education Institutions

The Institut Supérieur de Gestion, is a vocational institution offering programs in business administration, management, accountancy and computer science leading to certificates such as the Certificat d’Aptitude Professionnelle (CAP), the Brevet d’Etudes Professionnelles (BEP) and the Brevet de Technicien Supérieur (BTS).

King Faisal University is a member of the Islamic Universities’s Organization which has its headquarters in Egypt. The University is constituted of the Faculty of Arabic Language and the Faculty of Education. Arabic is the language of instruction at this university. Degrees offered include the Maitrise, the Diplôme d’Etudes Approfondies (DEA) and the Doctorate.

EDUCATION IN CHAD

 

DOCTORAT

 

7th year

 

 

6th year

DEA

 

5th year

MAITRISE

UNIVERSITY

4th year

LICENCE

 

3rd year

DEUG

 

2nd year

1er CERTIFICAT

 

1st year

 

BACCALAUREAT

 

Terminale (13th )

 

 

1ere (12th year)

 

 

2nde (11th year)

BEPC/T

SECONDARY SCHOOLS

3eme (10th year)

 

 

4eme (9th year)

 

 

5eme (8th year)

 

 

6eme (7th year)

 

CEPE/T

 

CM2 (6th year)

 

 

CM1 (5th year)

 

 

CE2 (4th year)

 

PRIMARY (ELEMENTARY) SCHOOLS

CE1 (3rd year)

 

 

CP2 (2nd year)

 

 

CP1 (1st year)

 

 

K I N D E R G A R T E N S